Sunday, March 26, 2006

E-Gold Clarifications

Letter from Dr. Douglas Jackson; Chairman, e-gold, Ltd.

e-gold® has recently been the subject of a slanderous and unfounded article in Business Week. e-gold strongly refutes the allegations and presumptions of this article. The article chose to focus through anecdote and suspicion only on an exception - criminal abuse - and ignores the overwhelming majority of e-gold usage. It also fails to note that all online payment mechanisms including credit cards and intermediaries such as PayPal are targeted by criminals, likely at a much greater magnitude than e-gold, and fails to relate the very proactive steps e-gold takes to eliminate any criminal behavior involving e-gold.

e-gold and its Operator, Gold & Silver Reserve (G&SR®), including G&SR's exchange service OmniPay® in cooperation with the United States Government and pursuant to a lawfully issued written request, did allow an examination of the e-gold and OmniPay computer systems and data. The examination occurred on December 16th after normal business hours so as to avoid disrupting access to the system. The examination utilized the full resources of e-gold's system and prevented customer access. We were told by the government examiners that the outage would be for a few hours, however, due to the volume of data maintained by e-gold for its customers' protection, a surprise to the examiners, the examination occupied e-gold's computing capacity for 36 hours. e-gold apologizes for any inconvenience of the system down time caused by the government's request. No charges have been filed against e-gold, G&SR, OmniPay or any of its principals.

e-gold operates legally and does not condone persons attempting to use e-gold for criminal activity. e-gold has a long history of cooperation with law enforcement agencies in the US and worldwide, providing data and investigative assistance in response to lawful requests.

I'm proud of what we have accomplished so far with e-gold. e-gold, now in its 10th year online, is growing exponentially because of a network effect, a global cascade of Users telling their friends who then tell their friends. For the first time since our launch in 1996, this growth is providing the revenue and resources needed for e-gold to accelerate technical development and other refinements to make it more reliable and even less hospitable to those who would seek to abuse it.

We are processing the same volume of transactions and growing at the same exponential pace that PayPal was in the second quarter of 2000. One difference, though, is that they had to give away $tens of millions of their investors' money to build a critical mass of user balances and were continuing a burn rate of about $10 million per month during this period. Altogether they burned through about $275 million of capital losses before their IPO.

e-gold, in contrast, lacking significant outside investment:

  • has attained a circulation larger than Canada 's official gold reserves (currently 3.46 metric tonnes of gold, equivalent to about $55 million at current exchange rates).
  • has web traffic surpassing and and is neck and neck with as the most heavily trafficked gold related site on the Web
  • settles 50 to 60 thousand user-to-user payments per day, a daily value of about $10 million
  • has active Users in every country, (including more than 150,000 in China ) despite our lack so far of foreign language versions - a high priority on our to-do list

e-gold is the only payment mechanism that is truly global, enabling any merchant to accept payment online even if the payer lives in a third world country, has no credit card, or is perhaps 'unbanked' altogether.

e-gold enables the migrant worker of modest means to send value back to his family in Mexico or Bangladesh at a fraction of the cost of conventional international remittance mechanisms. e-gold alone is free of chargeback risk, yet the fee for receiving payment in e-gold is a tiny fraction of those charged by any other systems.

Thanks to e-gold, for the first time in history, normal people of modest means worldwide have the option of using currency that is designed from the ground up to be immune to debasement, with a governance model that precludes even its management and founders from having the power to subvert it.

Gold & Silver Reserve has been operating for over nine years. Seeking to comply with every applicable law, G&SR has reached out to the Government dozens of times, has repeatedly met with officials from the Internal Revenue Service, the FBI, SEC and a variety of other Federal agencies, and has been told – in no uncertain terms – that we were operating legally and in full compliance with all laws, rules and regulations. Additionally, the Government has requested from us – on more than three hundred occasions – information regarding individuals it believed to be lawbreakers. Gold & Silver Reserve complied with every single request in a professional and timely fashion. Numerous Government officials have gone so far as to commend us in writing for our efforts in complying with their requests and aiding them in their investigations.

Very recently, however, the Government concluded that it was unable to “regulate” our business under any current statutes or regulations. Rather than moving Congress to enact legislation, the Government apparently chose to undertake to regulate us under pre-existing statutes which are totally and utterly inapplicable to our business. To do so, the case the Government brought against Gold & Silver Reserve centered around false statements and fabrications made to a Magistrate Judge in Washington , D.C. A week later, when challenged by that Judge, the Government, fearing it would lose its case filed a second suit against Gold & Silver Reserve. We are now addressing that action and are confident that we will be victorious in a very short time.

Both OmniPay and e-gold have been substantially harmed. Both sites were off-line altogether for 36 hours - an interval during which we were at a loss to know what to announce or even how to announce it. There were other direct interventions as well that I am not yet at liberty to discuss that nearly crippled OmniPay's ability to honor its obligations to and on behalf of users. The worst effect of course is on our reputation. This irresponsible smear piece will surely impair our efforts to build strategic relationships with the host of businesses and individuals that would benefit from an embrace of e-gold.

Let me be very clear. e-gold in no manner condones persons or organizations attempting to use e-gold to support criminal acts. The exact opposite is true. e-gold limits accounts that are suspect of illicit activity and has a long history of cooperation with law enforcement agencies.

There are two elements that make e-gold about the dumbest choice a criminal could make if seeking to obfuscate a money trail or otherwise hide the proceeds of crime.

  1. it is impossible for a general user of e-gold to send/add money (value in any form) into the system... he can only get e-gold by receiving an e-gold Spend from someone who already has some.
  2. there's a permanent record of all transfers, that is, a permanent record of the entire lineage of every particle of value in the e-gold system.

There is nothing "anonymous and untraceable" about e-gold. e-gold Spends settle by book entry - it isn't so-called "digital cash".

e-gold is not about crime. e-gold is not a hospitable environment for criminals. e-gold maintains an efficient and highly capable investigative staff to aid in the identification, apprehension and prosecution of any criminal abusing the system. Our staff has participated in hundreds of investigations supporting the FBI, FTC, IRS, DEA, SEC, USPS, and others. This is the reality of every payment system, the need to aid in rooting out criminal abuse, whether it is child pornographers taking advantage of the multiple layers and indirection of credit card middlemen, or smurfs aggregating cash via international remittance processors or even state lotteries.

e-gold has taken a proactive approach, reaching out to law enforcement agencies and NGO's (Non-Governmental Organization) to foster closer cooperation in combating crime online. For example, e-gold is a charter member of the Financial Coalition to eradicate Child Pornography, organized by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, along with Visa, MasterCard, Microsoft, AOL, PayPal, First Data and some of the major banks.

I hope to have additional and useful facts shortly and will communicate them when appropriate. I can assure you e-gold is up and running, supporting its customers, and continuing to grow.

Dr. Douglas Jackson

Ngungkapin perasaan cinta lewat dialog-dialog film

Apa kamu hobi nonton film bertema cinta yang romantis? Bila ya, nonton film romantis emang selalu jadi menu utama pasangan yang sedang dimabuk cinta. Beragam alasan dikemukakan. Yang jelas, mereka ingin bisa seromantis pasangan di film tersebut, en..siapa tau ada ‘ilmu' hingga bisa menjadi cowok atau cewek romantis-!

SEBENARNYA nih, ada yang lebih menarik, selain alur cerita dalam film bertema cinta. Sayangnya, banyak yang agak ngeh dengan ini. Apa dong? Jawabnya, kalimat cinta yang dilontarkan para tokoh utama film tersebut. Kata-kata cinta emang seru banget kalo terus digali. Boleh percaya atau tidak, kalimat cinta yang keluar dari pasangan yang tengah kasmaran, konon justru sering terilhami dari sebuah film yang pas buat menjadi mediator.

By the way, ketika kamu nonton bareng doi, kamu masih ingat nggak sih, kata-kata cinta yang pernah muncul dari beberapa film romantis yang pernah kamu tonton? Atau, kamu pernah dapat surat atau tulisan doi tentang perasaannya buat kamu, yang ternyata disadur doi dari sebuah film. Gak nyangka kan, kalo gara-gara film doi bisa lancar ngomong cinta.

Kamu ingin tau juga kan, kalimat-kalimat cinta dari beberapa film romantis yang bikin heboh publik itu.

"Promise me that you'll never give up, no matter how hopeless", Kalimat wasiat ini dilontarkan si ganteng Leonardo Di Caprio, sebelum kapal tenggelam, Tanpa kata-kata ini mungkin Rose (Kate Winslet) nggak bakal tegar, Cukup mengena maknanya buat kita, agar selalu optimistis menghadapi segala tantangan,

My Best Friend Wedding

"If you love someone, you say it. You say it right then, out loud, or the moment just passes you by” Kata-kata ini begitu menyentuh, kalo orang yang kita taksir ternyata cuek, bukan lalu dia nggak naksir balik. Tapi kemungkinan doi nggak pernah tau perasaan kita. Makanya kalo ada kesempatan, ngobrol dong jangan dipendem sendiri perasaanmu itu. Siapa tau setelah kamu beraksi, doi memberi reaksi, dan akhir-nya jadian.

Love Story

" means never having to say you're sorry", Tidak pernah ada kata menyesal untuk cinta. Kata-kata ini begitu abadi, sebagai film klasik yang dimainkan Ryan O'Neal dan Ali MacGraw.

Bahkan, sebentar lagi juga bakal diremake dengan bintang pasangan hot Britney Spears dan Justin Timberlake. Sesuai pula dengan judul lagunya yang juga terkenal ‘love story' dinyanyikan oleh Andy Williams.

Itulah dahsyatnya kekuatan cinta! Seperti apa pun, risikonya, cinta tetap indah untuk dirasakan. Indahnya cinta gak mudah dilukiskan, rasanya pun tak mudah dibayangkan..! Alamak, gula Jawa pun berasa coklat, bila sedang jatuh cinta.

Pearl Harbor

"I'm giving my heart to Danny. But Til never look at another sunset without thinking of you". Dialog romantis ini mengingatkan kita pada Evelyn yang bertemu lagi dengan Rafe, Kata-kata itu bunyinya, hatiku kuberikan pada Danny, tapi aku tak melupakan dirimu (...Rafe). Tapi kalimat itu ada enggak enaknya juga buat Danny. Malang benar nasib dia, karena gak pernah dicintai sepenuhnya oleh Evelyn. Itu artinya, rasa cinta emang susah dihilangkan. Butuh waktu panjang untuk melupakan kenangan-kenangan indahnya.

Ada Apa dengan Cinta (A2dC)

Puisi Rangga (Nicholas Saputra) waktu lomba, sehingga bisa ngalahin puisinya Cinta (Dian Sastro), Ini, nih penggalannya, "Kulari ke hutan kemudian teriakku, Kulari ke pantai kemudian menyanyiku, Sepi...sepi...dan sendiri aku benci. Aku mau di pasar, bosan aku dengan penat. Dan enyah saja kau pekat, Seperti berjelaga jika kusendiri, pecahkan saja gelasnya biar ramai, Biar mengaduh sampai gaduh, aih ada malaikat menyulam Jaring laba-laba belang di tembok keraton putih, kenapa tak goyangkan saja Loncengnya, biar terdera, Atau aku harus lari ke pantai, belok ke hutan".

Ever after, Cinderella Story

"A life without love, is no life at all” Kata-kata ini cukup menyentuh, cinta adalah segalanya. Hidup tanpa cinta betapa hambarnya, Wah mengena banget ucapan ini, emang cinta begitu mewarnai hidup manusia. Hidup tanpa pernah merasakan cinta, ibarat makan tanpa garam. Gak berasa, dan tiada artinya.

So dari ribuan kata yang muncul lewat film-film romantis, mana yang menurut kamu kata-kata cintanya paling berkesan dan menyentuh? Dan mana yang ingin kamu 'tiru’ ntuk diungkapin ke doi?

Thursday, March 23, 2006

Love in Different Version

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The heart, a frequent modern symbol of love

The heart, a frequent modern symbol of love

Love has several different meanings in the English language, from something that gives a little pleasure ("I loved that meal") to something one would die for (patriotism, pair-bonding). It can describe an intense feeling of affection, an emotion or an emotional state. In ordinary use, it usually refers to interpersonal love. Probably due to its emotional primacy, love is one of the most common themes in art. Love is sometimes descibed as an OCD.

Love might best be defined as acting intentionally, in sympathetic response to others (including any gods or goddesses), to promote overall well-being. Or to put simply, "love responds intentionally to promote well-being"(Thomas Jay Oord). Love promotes overall flourishing, but often focuses on those close at hand.

Love is inherent in all human cultures and thus may be seen as a defining trait of humanity, that is, love is a quality that makes one human. It is precisely these cultural differences that make any universal definition of love difficult, but not impossible, to establish. See the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. Expressions of love may include the love for a soul or mind, the love of laws and organizations, love for a body, love for nature, love of food, love of money, love for learning, love of power, love of fame, love for the respect of others, et cetera. Different people place varying degrees of importance on the kinds of love they receive. Love is essentially an abstract concept, easier to experience than to explain.

Scientific models

Swans forming a heart, a common symbol for love, together.

Swans forming a heart, a common symbol for love, together.

Throughout history, predominately, philosophy and religion have speculated the most into the phenomena of love. In the last century, the science of psychology has written a great deal on the subject. Recently, however, the sciences of evolutionary psychology, evolutionary biology, anthropology, neuroscience, and biology have begun to take center stage in discussion as to the nature and function of love.

Biological models of love tend to see it as a mammalian drive, just like hunger or thirst. Psychology sees love as more of a social and cultural phenomenon. There are probably elements of truth in both views — certainly love is influenced by hormones (such as oxytocin) and pheromones, and how people think and behave in love is influenced by their conceptions of love.

Attraction and attachment

The conventional view in biology is that there are two major drives in love — sexual attraction and attachment. Attachment between adults is presumed to work on the same principles that lead an infant to become attached to his or her mother or father.

In the February 2006 issue of National Geographic, Lauren Slater's cover page article "Love: The Chemical Reaction" discusses love and the chemicals responsible. In it Slater explains some of the research in the area. Some key points:

  • The chemicals triggered responsible for passionate love and long-term attachment love seem to be more particular to the activities in which both participate rather than to the nature of the specific people involved.
  • The serotonin effects of being in love have a similar chemical appearance to obsessive-compulsive disorder (which could explain why a person in love cannot think of anyone else). For this reason some assert that being on a SSRI and other antidepressants, which treat OCD, impede one's ability to fall in love. One particular case:
"I know of one couple on the edge of divorce. The wife was on an antidepressant. Then she went off it, started having orgasms once more, felt the renewal of sexual attraction for her husband, and they're now in love all over again." (38)
  • The long-term attachment felt after the initial "in love" passionate phase of the relationship ends is a result of chemicals such as oxytocin. Things like massaging and "making love" can help trigger oxytocin.
  • Novelty triggers attraction, so nerve-racking activities like riding a roller coaster are good dates. Even a person working out for ten minutes can make that person more attracted to other people on account of increased heart rate and other physiological responses.

Companionate vs. passionate

The traditional psychological view sees love as being a combination of companionate love and passionate love. Passionate love is intense longing, and is often accompanied by physiological arousal (shortness of breath, rapid heart rate). Companionate love is affection and a feeling of intimacy not accompanied by physiological arousal.

Triangular Theory of Love

Main article: triangular theory of love

In 1986 psychologist Robert Sternberg published his famous triangular theory of love in Psychological Review (Vol. 93, No.2, 119-135), which postulated a geometric interpretation of love. According to the triangular theory, love has three components:

  1. Intimacy – which encompasses the feelings of closeness, connectedness, and bondedness.
  2. Passion – which encompasses the drives that lead to romance, physical attraction, and sexual consummation.
  3. Decision/Commitment – which encompasses, in the short term, the decision that one loves another, and in the long term, the commitment to maintain that love.
The “amount” of love one experiences depends on the absolute strength of these three components; the “kind” of love one experiences depends on their strengths relative to each other. The three components, pictorially labeled on the vertices of a triangle, interact with each other and with the actions they produce and with the actions that produce them so as to form a number of different kind of love experiences. The size of the triangle functions to represent the amount of love - the bigger the triangle the greater the love. The shape of the triangle functions to represent the kind of love, which typically varies over the course of the relationship: passion-stage (right-shifted triangle), intimacy-stage (apex-triangle), commitment-stage

(left-shifted triangle), typically. Each of these elements can be present in a relationship to the main nine varieties of love via the following combinations:

intimacy passion commitment
Liking or friendship

Infatuation or limerence

Empty love

Romantic love

Companionate love

Fatuous love
Consummate love

Formulaic models

In the history of human thought, various researchers, from time to time, have come forward with hypothetical formulas of love. One such famous formula, from the early 20th century, was provided by the pioneer sexologist Havelock Ellis who postulated the following mathematical equality:[1]

Love = Sex + Friendship

Love styles

Susan Hendrick and Clyde Hendrick developed a Loves Attitude Scale based on John Alan Lee's theory called Love styles. Lee identified six basic theories that people use in their interpersonal relationships:

  • Eros (romantic love) — a passionate physical love based on physical appearance and beauty.
  • Ludus (game playing)— love is played as a game; love is playful; often involves little or no commitment and thrives on "conquests".
  • Storge (companionate love) — an affectionate love that slowly develops, based on similarity and friendship.
  • Pragma (pragmatic love) — inclination to select a partner based on practical and rational criteria where both will benefit from the partnership.
  • Mania (possessive love) — highly emotional love; unstable; the stereotype of romantic love; its characteristics include jealousy and conflict.
  • Agapē (altruistic love) — selfless altruistic love; spiritual

The Hendricks found men tend to be more ludic and manic, whereas women tend to be storgic and pragmatic. Relationships based on similar love styles were found to last longer.


Helen Fisher suggests three main phases of love: lust, attraction, and attachment. Generally love will start off in the lust phase, strong in passion but weak in the other elements. The primary motivator at this stage is the basic sexual instinct. Appearance, smells, and other similar factors play a decisive role in screening potential mates. However, as time passes, the other elements may grow and passion may shrink — this depends upon the individual. So what starts as infatuation or empty love may well develop into one of the fuller types of love. At the attraction stage the person concentrates their affection on a single mate and fidelity becomes important.

Likewise, when a person has known a loved one for a long time, they develop a deeper attachment to their partner. According to current scientific understanding of love, this transition from the attraction to the attachment phase usually happens in about 30 months. After that time, the passion fades, changing love from consummate to companionate, or from romantic love to liking.

'Sacred Love versus Profane Love' by Giovanni Baglione

'Sacred Love versus Profane Love' by Giovanni Baglione

Cultural views


In contemporary Chinese language and culture, several terms or root words are used for the concept of "love":

  • Ai (愛) is used as a verb (e.g. Wo ai ni, "I love you") or as a noun, especially in aiqing (愛情), "love" or "romance." In mainland China since 1949, airen (愛人, originally "lover," or more literally, "love person") is the dominant word for "spouse" (with separate terms for "wife" and "husband" originally being de-emphasized); the word once had a negative connotation, which it retains among many on Taiwan.
  • Lian (戀) is not generally used alone, but instead as part of such terms as "being in love" (談戀愛, tan lian'ai—also containing ai), "lover" (戀人, lianren) or "homosexuality" (同性戀, tongxinglian).
  • Qing (情), commonly meaning "feeling" or "emotion," often indicates "love" in several terms. It is contained in the word aiqing (愛情); qingren (情人) is a term for "lover".

In Confucianism, lian is a virtuous benevolent love. Lian should be pursued by all human beings, and reflects a moral life. The Chinese philosopher Mozi developed the concept of ai (愛) in reaction to Confucian lian. Ai, in Mohism, is universal love towards all beings, not just towards friends or family, without regard to reciprocation. Extravagance and offensive war are inimical to ai. Although Mozi's thought was influential, the Confucian lian is how most Chinese conceive of love.

Gănqíng (感情), the feeling of a relationship. A person will express love by building good gănqíng, accomplished through helping or working for another. Emotional attachment toward another person or anything.

Yuanfen (緣份) is a connection of bound destinies. A meaningful relationship is often conceived of as dependent strong yuanfen. It is very similar to serendipity. A similar conceptualization in English is, "They were made for each other," "fate," or "destiny".

Zaolian (Simplified: 早恋, Traditional: 早戀, pinyin: zǎoliàn), "puppy love" or literally "early love," is a contemporary term in frequent use for romantic feelings or attachments among children or adolescents. Zaolian describes both relationships among a teenaged boyfriend and girlfriend, as well as the "crushes" of early adolescence or childhood. The concept essentially indicates a prevalent belief in contemporary Chinese culture that due to the demands of their studies (especially true in the highly competitive educational system of China), youth should not form romantic attachments lest they jeopardize their chances for success in the future. Reports have appeared in Chinese newspapers and other media detailing the prevalence of the phenomenon and its perceived dangers to students and the fears of parents.


In Japanese Buddhism, ai (愛) is passionate caring love, and a fundamental desire. It can develop towards either selfishness or selflessness and enlightenment.

Amae (甘え), a Japanese word meaning "indulgent dependence", is part of the child-rearing culture of Japan. Japanese mothers are expected to hug and indulge their children, and children are expected to reward their mothers by clinging and serving. Some sociologists (most notably, Takeo Doi) have suggested that Japanese social interactions in later life are modeled on the mother-child amae.

Linguistically, the two most common words for love are ai (愛)and koi (恋). Generally speaking, most forms of non-romantic love are expressed using the former, while romantic love is expressed using the latter. "Parental love", for example, is oya no ai (親の愛), while "to be in love with" is koi suru (恋する). There are of course exceptions. The word aijin (愛人) means "lover" and implies an illicit, often extra-marital relationship, whereas koibito (恋人) has the connotation of "boyfriend", "girlfriend", or "partner".

In everyday conversation, however, ai (愛) and koi (恋) are rarely used. Rather than using ai shiteiru (愛している) or koi shiteiru (恋している) to say "I love you", for example, most Japanese would say suki desu (好きです), which literally means "I like you" -- suki (好き) being the same word used to express preferences for food, music, etc., as in sushi ga suki desu (寿司が好きです), or "I like sushi." Rather than diluting the sentiment, however, the implied meaning of "love" is understood.

Ancient Greek

Greek distinguishes several different senses in which the word love is used. For example, ancient Greek has the words philia, eros, agape, storge and xenia. However, with Greek as with many other languages, it has been historically difficult to separate the meanings of these words totally. At the same time the ancient Greek text of the Bible has examples of the verb agapo being used with the same meaning as phileo.

Agape (ἀγάπη agápē) means love in modern day Greek. The term s'agapo means I love you in Greek. The word agapo is the verb I love. It generally refers to a "pure", ideal type of love rather than the physical attraction suggested by eros. However, there are some examples of agape used to mean the same as eros. It has also been translated as "love of the soul".

Eros (ἔρως érōs) is passionate love, with sensual desire and longing. The Greek word erota means in love. Plato refined his own definition. Although eros is initially felt for a person, with contemplation it becomes an appreciation of the beauty within that person, or even becomes appreciation of beauty itself. Eros helps the soul recall knowledge of beauty, and contributes to an understanding of spiritual truth. Lovers and philosophers are all inspired to seek truth by eros. Some translations list it as "love of the body".

Philia (φιλία philía), means friendship in modern Greek, a dispassionate virtuous love, was a concept developed by Aristotle. It includes loyalty to friends, family, and community, and requires virtue, equality and familiarity. Philia is motivated by practical reasons; one or both of the parties benefit from the relationship.

Storge (στοργή storgē) means affection in modern Greek; it is natural affection, like that felt by parents for offspring.

Xenia (ξενία philoxenía), means hospitality in modern Greek, was an extremely important practice in ancient Greece. It was an almost ritualized friendship formed between a host and their guest, who could previously be strangers. The host fed and provided quarters for the guest, who was only expected to repay with gratitude. The importance of this can be seen throughout Greek mythology, in particular Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.


The Latin language has several different verbs corresponding to the English word 'love'.

Amare is the basic word for to love, as it still is in Italian today. The Romans used it both in an affectionate sense, as well as in a Romantic or sexual sense. From this verb come amans, a lover, amator, 'professional lover', often with the accessory notion of lechery, and amica, 'girlfriend' in the English sense, often as well being applied euphemistically to a prostitute. The corresponding noun is amor, which is also used in the plural form to indicate 'love affairs' or 'sexual adventures'. This same root also produces amicus, 'friend', and amicitia, 'friendship' ed on mutual advantage, and corresponding sometimes more closely to 'indebtedness' or 'influence'). Cicero wrote a treatise called On Friendship (de Amicitia) which discusses the notion at some length. Ovid wrote a guide to dating called Ars Amatoria (The Art of Lovers), which addresses in depth everything from extramarital affairs to overprotective parents.

Complicating the picture somewhat, Latin sometimes uses amare where English would simply say to like; this notion, however, is much more generally expressed in Latin by placere or delectare, which are used more colloquially, and the latter of which is used frequently in the love poetry of Catullus.

Diligere often has the notion 'to be affectionate for', 'to esteem', and rarely if ever is used of romantic love. This word would be appropriate to describe the friendship of two men. The corresponding noun diligentia, however, has the meaning 'diligence' 'carefulness' and has little semantic overlap with the verb.

Observare is a synonym for 'diligere'; despite the cognate with English, this verb and its corresponding noun 'observantia' often denote 'esteem' or 'affection'.

Caritas is used in Latin translations of the Christian Bible to mean 'charitable love'. This meaning, however, is not found in Classical pagan Roman literature. As it arises from a conflation with a Greek word, there is no corresponding verb.

Indonesian and Malaysian

In Indonesian and Malaysian linguistics perspective, love can be defined in several ways:

Cinta is a word that defines lust or love that involves physical attraction.

Jatuh cinta literally means falling in love: the initial action that triggers love.

Sayang is a word to express unconditional love, but also to express deep regret in losing something.

Religious views

Whether religious love can be expressed in similar terms to interpersonal love is a matter for philosophical debate. Religious 'love' might be considered a euphemistic term, more closely describing feelings of deference or acquiescence. Most religions use the term love to express the devotion the follower has to their deity, who may be a living guru or religious teacher. This love can be expressed by prayer, service, good deeds, and personal sacrifice. Reciprocally, the followers may believe that the deity loves the followers and all of creation. Some traditions encourage the development of passionate love in the believer for the deity. Refer to Religious Views below.


In Buddhism, Kāma is sensuous, sexual love. It is an obstacle on the path to enlightenment, since it is selfish.

Karunā is compassion and mercy, which reduces the suffering of others. It is complementary to wisdom, and is necessary for enlightenment.

Advesa and maitrī are benevolent love. This love is unconditional and requires considerable self-acceptance. This is quite different from the ordinary love, which is usually about attachment and sex, which rarely occur without self-interest. Instead, in Buddhism it refers to detachment and unselfish interest in others' welfare.

The Bodhisattva ideal in Tibetan Buddhism involves the complete renunciation of oneself in order to take on the burden of a suffering world. The strongest motivation one has in order to take the path of the Bodhisattva is the idea of salvation within unselfish love for others.


"Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things."
1 Corinthians 13:4-7 (KJV)

There are several Greek words for Love that are regularly referred to in Christian circles.

  • Agape - In the New Testament, agapē is charitable, selfless, altruistic, and unconditional. It is parental love seen as creating goodness in the world, it is the way God is seen to love humanity, and it is seen as the kind of love that Christians aspire to have for others.
  • Phileo - Also used in the New Testament, Phileo is a human response to something that is found to be delightful. Also known as "brotherly love".
  • Two other words for love in the Greek language -- Eros (sexual love) and storge (needy child-to parent love) were never used in the New Testament.

C.S. Lewis, an influential Christian theologian, wrote a book called The Four Loves.

Many Christians believe that the greatest commandment is "thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment." and "Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself." are the two greatest commandments (the two greatest commandment of God, according to Jesus). See The Gospel of Mark chapter 12, verses 28-34). Saint Augustine summarised this when he wrote "Love God, and do as thou wilt". Saint Paul glorified agape love as the most important virtue of all in 1 Corinthians, chapter 13. Attempting to define it he wrote, " Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Charity never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. "(13:4-8 KJV)

Christians also believe that God felt so much agape love for man that he sacrificed his son for them. John the Apostle wrote, "For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved." (John 3:16-17 KJV)

Many Christian theologians see God as the source of love, "He that loveth not knoweth not God; for God is love." (1 John 4:8 KJV])


In Hinduism kāma is pleasurable, sexual love, personified by the god Kama. For many Hindu schools it is the third end in life .

In contrast to kāma, prema or prem refers to elevated love.

Karuna is compassion and mercy, which reduces the suffering of others.

Bhakti is a Sanskrit term from Hinduism meaning 'loving devotion to the supreme God'. A person who practices bhakti is called bhakta. Hindu writers, theologians, and philosophers have distinguished nine forms of devotion that they call bhakti, for example in the Bhagavatha-Purana and according to Tulsidas. The booklet Narada bhakti sutra written by an unknown author distinguishes eleven forms of love.


In a sense, love does encompass the Islamic view of life as universal brotherhood which applies to all who hold the faith. There are no direct references stating that God is love, but amongst the 99 names of God (Allah), there is the name Al-Wadud or 'the Loving One', which is found in Surah 11:90 as well as Surah 85:14. It refers to God as being "full of loving kindness". In Islam, love is more often than not used as an incentive for sinners to aspire to be as worthy of God's love as they may. One still has God's love, but how the person evaluates his own worth is to his own and God's own counsel. All who hold the faith have God's love, but to what degree or effort he has pleased God depends on the individual itself.

Ishq, or divine love, is the emphasis of Sufism. Sufis believe that love is a projection of the essence of God to the universe. God desires to recognize beauty, and as if one looks at a mirror to see oneself, God "looks" at itself within the dynamics of nature. Since everything is a reflection of God, the school of Sufism practices to see the beauty inside the apparently ugly. Sufism is oftentimes referred to as the religion of Love. God in Sufism is referred to in three main terms which are the Lover, Loved, and Beloved with the last of these terms being often seen in Sufi poetry. A common viewpoint of Sufism is that through Love humankind can get back to its inherent purity and grace.


"And you shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your might."
Deuteronomy 6:5

In Hebrew Ahava is the most commonly used term for both interpersonal love and love of God. Other related but dissimilar terms are Chen (grace) and Hesed, which basically combines the meaning of "affection" and "compassion" and is sometimes rendered in English as "loving-kindness".

Judaism employs a wide definition of love, both between people and between man and the Deity. As for the former, the Torah states: "Love your neighbor like yourself" (Leviticus 19:18). As for the latter, one is commanded to love God "with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might" (Deuteronomy 6:5), taken by the Mishnah (a central text of the Jewish oral law) to refer to good deeds, willingness to sacrifice one's life rather than commit certain serious transgressions, willingness to sacrifice all one's possessions and being grateful to the Lord despite adversity (tractate Berachoth 9:5). Rabbinic literature differs how this love can be developed, e.g. by contemplating Divine deeds or witnessing the marvels of nature.

As for love between marital partners, this is deemed an essential ingredient to life: "See life with the wife you love" (Ecclesiastes 9:9). The Biblical book Song of Songs is a considered a romantically-phrased metaphor of love between God and his people, but in its plain reading reads like a love song.

The 20th-century rabbi Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler is frequently quoted as defining love from the Jewish point-of-view as "giving without expecting to take" (from his Michtav me-Eliyahu, vol. I). Romantic love per se has few echoes in Jewish literature, although the medieval rabbi Judah Halevi wrote romantic poetry in Arabic in his younger years (he appears to have regretted this later).


Different cultures have deified love, typically in both male and female form. Here is a list of the gods and goddesses of love in different mythologies.


Even though in monotheistic religions, the God is considered to represent love, there are often angels or similar beings that represent love as well.

  • Haniel — Angel of Venus, and of eros, in Judeo-Christian theology.
  • Raphael — Angel of love(agape) in Judeo-Christian theology.
  • Mihr — angel of love in Persian mythology

Sunday, March 19, 2006


SALAH satu kredo yang selalu saya promosikan secara gencar sejak setahun lalu adalah mengajak orang untuk berani berpikir terbalik. ''Reverse thinking'' atau berpikir terbalik bukanlah teknik berpikir yang baru. Sudah lama dipraktekkan para inovator dan kaum pemikir. Tujuannya semata untuk mencari terobosan baru. Sederhana saja.

Minggu lalu, dalam sebuah diskusi entrepreneur, seorang peserta bertanya, ''Kalau begitu, sukses brownies kukus Amanda itu adalah brownies yang dikukus atau bolu kukus yang di-brownies-kan?'' Ini pertanyaan yang unik. Sebab, menurut cerita, resep asli yang diperoleh Ibu Sugeng pada 1999 dari adiknya di Yogya memang resep bolu kukus. Resep inilah yang kemudian dikembangkan dan disempurnakan menjadi produk andalan brownies kukus Amanda yang saat ini sangat terkenal.

Mungkin saja brownies kukus Amanda adalah contoh berpikir terbalik yang nyata. Andai kata dipromosikan bolu kukus brownies, mungkin konsumen tidak akan penasaran. Tapi, ketika dibalik menjadi brownies yang dikukus, benak konsumen menjadi bertanya-tanya, karena brownies yang biasanya dipanggang menjadi luar biasa dengan pakem yang menyalahi kebiasaan ini. Nah, cara berpikir terbalik atau reverse thinking ini bisa menjadi terobosan yang Anda nanti-nantikan.

Beberapa produk dunia yang menjadi tren global juga tak jarang menggunakan konsep berpikir terbalik. Ketika jam-jam digital Jepang yang sangat murah menyerang pasar global, industri jam di Swiss hampir bangkrut total. Satu perusahaan kemudian berpikir terbalik menciptakan Swatch atau Swiss Watch, yang trendi itu. Swatch tidak menjadi arloji biasa. Orang membeli Swatch bukan karena mutu Swatch sangat akurat menunjukkan waktu, melainkan semata-mata karena Swatch menjadi aksesori fashion baru. Sebuah tren baru yang bentuknya jam tangan. Tak mengherankan apabila orang kemudian mengoleksi Swatch sama seperti orang mengoleksi tas, jaket, dan sepatu.

Contoh lain diterapkan Heinz, produsen saus tomat di Amerika. Mulanya produk saus tomat mengalami kemandekan alias tidak tumbuh secara baik dari tahun ketahun. Semata-mata karena penetrasi pasar saus tomat di Amerika sudah mencapai hampir 100%. Heinz mencoba mencari sebuah solusi terobosan. Secara tradisional, kalau sampai meningkatkan pertumbuhan, Heinz harus mempromosikan orang untuk mengonsumsi lebih banyak saus tomat. Misalnya, saus tomat dijadikan saus pendamping pada makanan lain. Ini cara berpikir yang normal.

Heinz berpikir abnormal atau terbalik. Mungkinkah saus tomat dipakai untuk konsumsi yang berbeda? Dalam survei dan observasi, terutama di gerai-gerai masakan siap saji, ternyata ditemukan anak-anak yang sering menggunakan saus tomat secara berlebihan semata-mata untuk dijadikan permainan. Dengan kentang goreng, misalnya, saus tomat dicorat-coret menjadi bentuk lukisan. Lalu hal ini memotivasi cara berpikir Heinz untuk berpikir terbalik. Mengubah fungsi saus tomat.

Akhirnya Heinz mendesain ulang botol saus tomat dengan menggunakan bahan plastik dengan moncong lebih runcing, sehingga memudahkan anak-anak menggunakannya. Dengan botol ini, anak-anak menemukan saus tomat Heinz lebih asyik dipermainkan atau dijadikan alat untuk melukis. Heinz kemudian juga menciptakan saus tomat dengan warna baru, yaitu biru, hijau, dan ungu. Anak-anak merasa gembira karena punya mainan baru saus tomat aneka warna.

Ibu-ibu mulanya kesal dengan ulah Heinz ini, tapi kemudian ikut arus. Anak-anak yang susah makan menjadi lebih mudah makan karena menemukan bahwa makan bisa menjadi rekreasi baru. Celakanya, ibu-ibu yang tadinya hanya membeli satu botol saus tomat, kini harus membeli dua-tiga botol. Dalam waktu seketika, penjualan saus tomat Heinz menjadi berlipat ganda. Tumbuh lebih cepat berkat pemikiran yang tidak normal.

Ketika produsen alat-alat olahraga Puma ingin menciptakan produk-produk eksklusif, mereka juga berpikir melawan arus. Diciptakanlah serangkaian produk yang ditujukan buat eksekutif, menggunakan merek baru, ''96 hours''. Produk-produk ''96 hours'' sangat revolusioner, di mana produk Puma dijual dalam satu koper kecil praktis, yang memungkinkan seorang eksekutif berpergian selama empat hari tapi memiliki pakaian lengkap hingga sepatu lengkap. Uniknya, konsep ''96 hours'' tidak dipublikasikan secara luas, tapi dirahasiakan. Hasilnya, ''96 hours'' jauh lebih cepat terkenal dan menyebar dibandingkan apabila diiklankan. ''96 hours'' menciptakan rasa penasaran yang begitu besar di kalangan eksekutif.

Kafi Kurnia
[Intrik, Gatra Nomor 18 Beredar Senin, 13 Maret 2006]

Wednesday, March 15, 2006

Jakarta: the implementation of Kiyosaki's

Jakarta: the implementation of Kiyosaki's

Tulisan seorang sahabat sekaligus mentor bisnisku dari TDA Community pak Budi Rahmat.
Taken from



Saya, di Jakarta, juga sudah mengimplementasikan tulisan RK dan cukup puas dengan hasilnya. Saya mo sharing pengalaman pribadi saya di bawah ini.

Semoga bermanfaat.



From: Budi Rachmat []
Sent: 28 Agustus 2004 22:10
Subject: Robert T.Kiyosaki: pemikiran dan implementasinya


Saya mo sharing tentang Robert T.Kiyosaki dan pemikirannya.

Saya sudah baca -+ 9 buku RK dan menurut saya yg dikemukakan oleh RK adalah mengenai INCOME/PENDAPATAN atau tepatnya CASHFLOW/ARUS KAS.
BUKAN STATUS (sebagai karyawan/pegawai atau pemilik small shop atau pemilik Big Bisnis atau Investor).
Jadi yang dikemukakan adalah darimana sebenarnya income/pendapatan itu berasal, bukan apa status kita.

Nah... darimanapun income itu bisa berasal dapat diklasifikasikan kedalam kuadran E,S,B,I.
Income seorang dokter bisa berasal dari E,S,B,I yaitu;
- pagi dia praktek RSUP sebagai pegawai negri ==> income dari kuadran E.
- sore praktek di rumah sebagai dokter ahli ==> income dari kuadran S.
- dia punya klinik bersama yang dikelola para profesional ==> kuadran B.
- dia beli beberapa apartemen/rumah untuk dikontrakan ==> kuadran I.

Tidak ada yang "tidak baik" dari kuadran2 tersebut, menurutku yg "tidak baik" adalah bila tidak mempunyai income.

Setiap kuadran mempunyai karakter masing2, antara lain;
- kuadran E dan S (Kiri) adalah Aktive Income. Dimana untuk mendapatkan income tsb diperlukan WAKTU yang sangat signifikan.

- kuadran B dan I (Kanan) adalah Pasive Income. Dimana untuk mendapatkan income tsb tidak diperlukan WAKTU yang banyak/panjang, seperti di Aktive Income.

Pandangan lainnya yang menarik dari RK adalah hubungan antara INCOME dan EXPENSES dengan ASET dan LIABILITI (kewajiban), yaitu;
Aset : adalah harta/pekerjaan/sesuatu yang menciptakan INCOME,
Liabiliti : adalah harta/pekerjaan/sesuatu yang menciptakan KEWAJIBAN/expenses.

Sebelum baca buku RK, saya pikir, rumah, mobil, apartemen yang saya miliki adalah Aset.....
eecchhh.... setelah baca buku, ternyata Liabiliti..... karena telah meciptakan KEWAJIBAN... bayar listrik, air, penjaga rumah, bensin, service dsb....

Pandangan lainnya, yaitu FF = 3PI > Expenses, yaitu: seseorang yang disebut Financially Freedom jika Pasive Incomenya 3 x lebih besar dari pada Expensesnya.

Garis besar isi daripada buku2 RK, sbb;

1. CASHFLOW QUADRANT, mengenai darimana aja sebetulnya income bisa diperoleh?? Bagaimana sifat daripada income tsb??....... sumber income adalah E/S/B/I.

2. RICH DAD POOR DAD. Cerita "perjalanan hidup/pemikiran" Robert T. Kiyosaki ===>>> yang pada akhirnya timbul konsep financial yaitu Cashflow Quadrant, di atas.

Si Rich Dad, orang tua temennya yang menjadi pembimbing financial-nya. Muda cukupan, tua kaya-raya. Karena mempersiapkan income dari B&I.

Si Poor Dad, orang tua kandungnya. Muda cukupan, tua miskin. Karena hanya mengandalkan
income dari kuadran S.

Ke-2 buku di atas adalah "JIWA" dari seluruh buku/pemikiran RK, sedangkan buku2nya yang lain...., menurut-ku, lebih ke bagaimana caranya (How to) untuk mencapai PASSIVE INCOME....

3. BUSINESS SCHOOL. Cara merubah mental jika mo memindahkan income dari kuadran Kiri (E&S) ke kuadran Kanan (B&I).

4. RICH KID SMART KID. Cara/perlunya memberikan pelajaran Financial sedini mungkin.

5. RETIRE YOUNG RETIRE RICH. Cara/perlunya mempunyai Financial Plan untuk income kita sendiri.

6. GUIDE TO INVESTING. cara/trik2 investasi yang aman dan potensial.

7. REAL ESTATE RICHES. cara/trik2 investasi dibidang property.

8. WHO TOOK MY MONEY. cara/trik2 untuk investasi jangka panjang.

9. SUCCESS STORY. cerita2 pendek dari mereka yang mengikuti dan melaksanakan konsep RK.

10. Yang belum saya baca adalah SALES DOG. (*** catatan: SalesDog sudah di baca)

Saya adalah "mengikut" Robert T. Kiyosaki.
Pengikut = ngikutin aja apa yang dia tulis dibukunya
(tentunya setelah saya cocokan dengan kondisi saya).

Sekarang saya SEDANG melaksanakan pemikiran2 RK....
Insya Allah akan memberikan hasil yang sesuai dengan impian saya.

Jadi bagaimana saya meng-implementasikannya......????

Karena tulisan saya sudah kepanjangan.... saya akan sambung dikesempatan yang akan datang.



From: Budi Rachmat []
Sent: 01 September 2004 15:15
Subject: Pindah kuadran.... (lanjutan dari Robert T.Kiyosaki: pemikiran dan implementasinya)


<<<<<<<<<<>Robert T.Kiyosaki: pemikiran dan implementasinya >>>>>>>>>>>>

Bulan APRIL 2003 saya keluar dari kerjaan saya. Saya lepas status saya sebagai karyawan. Saya lepas Income saya dari kuadran E. Saya konsentrasi di kuadran S,B,I.

FYI, keluarga saya adalah "single income". Istri sudah tidak bekerja 3 tahun yll, setelah melahirkan anak yang II. Saya punya 3 anak prempuan (11 tahun, 4 tahun dan 2 tahun).

Bagaimana cara saya pindah kuadran?

Caranya agak panjang (ini adalah SUATU PROSES). Jadi saya akan mulai dengan hasilnya dulu, karena mulai dari sini mungkin lebih menarik....

Saya akan menggunakan angka, walaupun ini bukan angka yang sebenarnya tapi dapat "mewakili" (dalam jutaan rupiah).
Saya juga bukan "orang Financial/Keuangan (KEU)", jadi saya tidak mengikuti "kaedah Keuangan yang benar(?)". Saya hanya mengikuti tulisan RK di-buku2nya.

Laporan Keuangan saya berdasarkan "kaedah RK", sbb;

Income per bulan:

SEBELUM PINDAH kuadran -- SETELAH PINDAH kuadran (Maret 2003) (Juli 2004)
- kuadran E = 12 ........... 0 => gaji tidak ada lagi
- kuadran S = 0 ........... 11 => "bisnis join-operation" + trading
- kuadran B = 0 ........... 8 => 1 waralaba
- kuadran I = 11 ........... 6 => interest + hasil sewa properti
TOTAL = 23 >>>>>>>>>>> 25

Dengan Cashflow / Arus-Kas per bulan, sebesar;

- kuadran E = 12 ........... 0
- kuadran S = 0 ........... 25 => "bisnis join-operation" + trading
- kuadran B = 0 ...........350 => 1 waralaba
- kuadran I = 11 ........... 6 => interest + hasil sewa properti
TOTAL = 23 >>>>>>>>>>>381

Dengan Aset dan Liabiliti, sebesar;

- Aset = 1.600 .........1.870 : saya "pindahkan" sebagian dari Liabiliti menjadi Aset
- Liabiliti= 750 ...........480 :
TOTAL = 2.350 >>>>>>>>>2.350

Saya analisa "perjalanan" saya setahun lebih ini dari laporan KEU di atas, sbb;

1. Harta (Aset + Liabiliti), ternyata masih sama.
Memang masih sama karena duitnya hanya segitu2nya. TAPI ada beberapa hal yang saya kerjakan, antara lain;

a. Saya "pindahkan" Liabiliti menjadi Aset, yaitu:
- menjual rumah yang tidak saya tinggali, yang ternyata hanya menciptakan kewajiban. Uangnya dibelikan Ruko untuk dibuat waralaba lagi....hemm... ada rencana investasi lagi nich.....
b. Saya "utilize" sebagian dari Deposito menjadi Waralaba, yang memberikan yield (+ cashflow) yang jaaauuuuhhhh.... lebih baik (daripada hanya di deposito-in aja). Waralaba saya berbentuk PT, jadi saya sedang membangun track record.... untuk ngutang ke bank nantinya... karena dengan track record dan Cashflow bank baru bisa memberikan kredit.... (FYI waktu masih pegawai, untuk kredit (konsumtif) hanya diperlukan slip gaji).

2. Cashflow saya hampir 17x dari pada SEBELUM PINDAH.
a. Dengan cashflow tsb di atas + track record.... bank udah kasih "lampu hijau".... untuk rencana investasi waralaba II.
b. kebayang ngak ya... DULU.... saya hanya terima/In 1x dalam sebulan (12 + 11jt) selanjutnya out...out...out...out... sampe habis... (klo ngak ditabung).

SEKARANG.... setiap hari dan juga out...out...out... pastinya. Hebatnya total yang in ke "dompet"ku sebulannya bisa mencapai 381juta. Tapi anehnya, tabungan saya koq ngak nambah2.... karena "diputerin" terus sich....

3. Income.... not bad... lha... at least about SEBELUM PINDAH kuadran... perlu di ingat bahwa income di E adalah FIX atau pasti jumlah nominalnya.... sedangkan di S,B,I tidak selalu sama jumlah nominalnya...

Saya suka income dari S,B,I.... dengan pertimbangan, sbb;
Di S : saya banyak ketemu orang... sosialisasi... mall to mall (bukan jalan2 lho... ini lagi cari kesempatan).... banyak belajar dari orang2 hebat disekeliling kita... sebetulnya income dari E saya juga mau.... asal part-time aja... (part-time and fix sallary... he...he...he...he...).

Di B & I : pasangan yang serasi. Invest di I dalam bentuk properti (tanah/ruko/apartemen dsb), bikin B (awalnya S kali) dengan modal "nyekolahin" surat properti tsb.... dan B bayar sewa ke saya.... dst...dst...dst... saya juga terima margin/cashflow dari usaha tsb ===>>> proses ini adalah gabungan dari Leverage, "Own Your Own Corporation", "Real Estate Riches" ... dst...dst...dst....

JADI, bagaimana cara saya pindah kuadran....?????

Klo prosesnya saya rada bingung.... kagok... mo mulai dari mana ya....????
Karena ternyata setelah direnungkan sebenarnya saya mulai berpikir dan bertindak untuk pindah kuadran sudah cukup lama.... Ketika baca buku RK.... mak jless....... gini nich caranya..... jadi "mulus" dech jalannya..... Insya Allah.




BUDI Rachmat
Jalan Kimia No.9, Menteng,
Jakarta 10320,